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The U.S. Federal Reserve has been weaning itself off forward guidance as it dials back crisis-mode policies, removing last year a phrase that policy will stay “accommodative” for some time. But other central banks, notably the BOJ, have been forced to maintain or even strengthen forward guidance to make up for a lack of alternative tools. Compared with other options, this has the advantage that it only requires tweaking language. While central banks may eventually turn to radical means like quantitative easing (QE), depending on the severity of the situation, they could prepare such steps or complement them with forward guidance to buy time or maximize the stimulus effect.

“Policymakers at both the Fed and the ECB will want to keep forward guidance as a tool of monetary stimulus in future,” said Mansoor Mohi-uddin, Macro Strategist at NatWest Markets, The BOJ could be among the major central banks most reliant on forward guidance, Already owning half of Japan’s government bond market, best cufflinks for groom there are limits to how much more QE it can do, Rate cuts are also controversial as years of ultra-low rates have narrowed financial institutions’ margins, enough to draw concerns within the BOJ of the rising cost of prolonged easing..

The BOJ could thus consider offering stronger forward guidance, such as binding itself to keep interest rates at current ultra-low levels until inflation approaches 2 percent, if it were to ramp up stimulus again, say sources familiar with the central bank’s thinking. “It’s definitely among tools the BOJ will consider when the economy is hit by a big shock,” one of the sources said, a view echoed by two other sources. Forward guidance could also come in handy for the ECB, as reverting to QE would be difficult given it has essentially run out of bonds to buy within its self-imposed role.

The ECB has pledged to keep its deposit rate at minus 0.4 percent at least until the summer of 2019 but does not provide guidance beyond that, The likely response to any further economic slowdown would be to push best cufflinks for groom out rate hike expectations even further, a relatively easy move, “Interest rate cuts and quantitative easing will likely remain the main instruments for reviving demand when the next recession strikes,” said Mohi-uddin of NatWest Markets, There is debate, however, on how well central bankers could steer market expectations without confusing investors..

ECB President Mario Draghi sent bond yields soaring in September last year when he talked about a “vigorous” inflation rise, sparking expectations of an imminent lift-off. BOJ Governor Kuroda also jolted markets in late 2017 when he spoke of a “reversal rate,” or the rate at which the cost of easing exceeds the benefits, stoking fears his central bank would soon dial back stimulus. Market expectations on the Fed’s policy path whip-sawed after its chairman Jerome Powell gave conflicting signs on how quickly the Fed would hike rates and shrink its balance sheet.

Striking the right balance between transparency and flexibility has also always been tricky, “Forward guidance is effective at times but not always, It needs to be realistic and credible, That’s not easy,” said Kazuo Momma, executive economist at Mizuho Research Institute and a former senior BOJ official with experience of drafting monetary policy, “It’s pretty hard to deal with various situations by forward guidance alone, If it’s best cufflinks for groom too ambiguous, it doesn’t have punch, But if you’re too clear, the guidance could bind future policy.”..

LONDON/NEW YORK (Reuters) - Turmoil on financial markets is expected to deepen layoffs and accelerate acquisitions in the fund management industry. BlackRock (BLK.N), the world’s largest money manager, and industry No. 3 State Street (STT.N) announced job cuts this month after the worst year for many stock indexes since the financial crisis and losses across most other financial assets. Hedge funds AQR Capital and Balyasny Capital took similar steps. “It will be a common industry trend,” said Kyle Sanders, an analyst with financial services firm Edward Jones.

“When markets go down, the first place asset managers look to cut costs is with headcount.” Until last year, rising markets – buoyed by easy money from central banks – had helped keep fund managers comfortably afloat, with many enjoying profit margins of 20-40 percent, even though fees have fallen, But the prospect of tighter monetary best cufflinks for groom policy and concerns around economic growth saw $168.1 billion drained from mutual funds globally in the final quarter of 2018, data from Lipper at Refinitiv showed..